Other languages are regularly used to write many different kinds of applications. The static semantics defines restrictions on the structure of valid texts that are hard or impossible to express in standard syntactic formalisms.
Basic computer programming involves the analysis of a problem and development of a logical sequence of instructions to solve it. There can be numerous paths to a solution and the computer programmer seeks to design and code that which is most efficient.
The practical necessity that a programming language support adequate abstractions is expressed by the abstraction principle. All Turing complete languages can implement the same set of algorithms.
For example, PostScript programs are frequently created by another program to control a computer printer or display. More generally, a programming language may describe computation on some, possibly abstract, machine. It is generally accepted that a complete specification for a programming language includes a description, possibly idealized, of a machine or processor for that language. In most practical contexts, a programming language involves a computer; consequently, programming languages are usually defined and studied this way.
In the past, most programming activities were perfomed by software engineers. But programming skills are needed everywhere nowadays and there is a …